Backing up a SharePoint farm configuration
You can perform a configuration-only backup of a farm by using Central Administration or the BackupSPConfigurationDatabase cmdlet. A configuration-only backup is useful for development or test environments, or where you are using a different method, such as SQL Server backup, to back up SharePoint content. You cannot back up the farm configuration using SQL Server backup tools or System Center Data Protection Manager.
Backing up service applications
You can use Central Administration or the Backup-SPFarm –Item <Service Application Name> cmdlet to back up specific service applications. Performing a SQL Server backup of the databases associated with the service application does not back up the entire service application itself; however you can re-provision the service application using the restored SQL databases.
Note: Using Central Administration or the Backup-SPFarm cmdlet are the only supported ways to back up the search service application, because these methods keep the search application databases and the search index files in sync.
Using PowerShell for backup
In order to use PowerShell for backing up SharePoint farm components, you must ensure that any user account running the backup cmdlets in PowerShell, including the account configured to run the script when scheduling PowerShell based backup operations, are added to the SharePoint_Shell_Access role for the databases to back up. These accounts must also be members of the required groups that are specified in the following table.
commenter cet article